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Two widows got paid for providing silk or silk trousers for instance; another got paid for caps, one for linen, and a fourth for making curtains. Elisabeth van Doorn and Janneke Swaan were paid for embroidering pairs of shoes on 4 February A second group in this category is food-related. While there is no explicit indication that these were concessions they also provided food for players , some women got paid for beer and wine. One name that appears frequently is Aefje Victorijns, whose husband Johannes also appears in the records, and the payments are, whenever there is detail, for beer.

Intriguing names come up regularly, such as someone called Trijntje Jacobs, but often unfortunately without noting what payments were for. Of these women, we might assume that the majority had their primary profession outside of the Schouwburg, and they would on occasion provide their services or goods to it. The second category, of women working in the building of the Schouwburg itself, also has a regular presence in the records.

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However, it is clear in the records after the arrival of actresses that the Schouwburg hired tirewomen for them specifically. The records use different terms to describe the job.

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A book on Amsterdam by Jan Wagenaar includes a lengthy account of the workings of the Schouwburg. The situation may have been somewhat different in the seventeenth century, as I have found only Reinders and De Soetert in the records for the s. After the renovation, the floor plan of the Schouwburg included two rooms for dressing of actresses, which is where Reinderts and De Soetert would have worked. The regular presence of these women in the Schouwburg is indicated by their inclusion in an index of actors and actresses, showing what they owed to and were owed by the Schouwburg.

Some women who received payments were wives, widows, or mothers of players. Widows, for instance, were occasionally owed money just after their husbands died—the widow of Pieter de Bray , an actor of female roles in the early days of the Schouwburg, got paid shortly after his death, on 22 February The actress Catharina Christina Petit , sister of Isabella, was paid for embroidering repeatedly, suggesting actresses could also provide occasional services aside from acting eg. Wives of actors sometimes worked for the Schouwburg.

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Another woman who fulfilled a key role behind the stage is Anna van Santvoort. I have not yet been able to find out when he died exactly, but Rash writes that he played for the Schouwburg from to He must have been dead by when Santvoort is listed as his widow in the Schouwburg account books. She gave birth to at least seven children between and , one of whom died at the age of three.

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  6. She died in Jan Wagenaar describes the work of the kastelein of the Schouwburg in detail:. The Kastelein of the Schouwburg, where to, already more than once, one of the ablest Actors or Players has been chosen, takes care of the chamber of the Regents, when they are meeting, or takes care that such, by someone in his place, happens.

    He oversees the carpenters and other workers at the Schouwburg and keeps a record of their earned wages. For these services he has been given free accommodation in the Schouwburg, also fire, light and other benefits. It seems then that for at least a number of years, a woman fulfilled this important function by Wagenaar only described with male pronouns , a job that gave her an extensive set of responsibilities and certainly a close association with the theater.

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    He cites testimony by Anna in her capacity as kastelein as to financial mismanagement of the Schouwburg. But the story does reveal a kind of closeness between actors and others who worked at the Schouwburg and a working environment of which women were very much a part. Perhaps the most substantial contribution to the functioning of the Schouwburg was made by Katharina Lescailje and possibly her sister. She worked in and—after the death of their father—was in charge of the printing house that printed all play texts of plays performed at the Schouwburg and supplied ink, pens, and paper as well as playbills to advertise performances.

    Although the Schouwburg did not have a direct financial stake in the printing of plays, they were sold during performances and used in rehearsal. These books were virtually all printed by the Lescailje printing house. While this tremendous amount of work supporting the public stage was carried out by women, there is little evidence of it even in the existing records. Rozemarijn van Leeuwen. They had a brother-in-law named Matthias de Wreedt, who worked in the book trade in Germany and may have been in charge too though there are no records naming him and he probably died in Grabowsky fn.

    Overviews of records pertaining to her by Van Leeuwen and Ellen Grabowsky show some tantalizing hints, including a fine for printing a libel that specifically names Katharina Lescailje listed in the overview by Van Eeghen IV, pp. A paper inspection in stated one of the sisters was present Grabowsky fn. My research into the Schouwburg records, however, has unearthed more definitive information. The cultural silence on contributions to the stage by working women contrasts with public acknowledgement of actresses and female playwrights.

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    In the case of Lescailje, we find praise poetry, for instance, that mentions her talents as an author and writer of six plays performed on stage, but very little in the way of explicit reference to her career as printer. Yet, while her primary business was not located inside the building of the theater, her work as a printer, bookseller, and publisher was almost all associated with it, as was much, though by no means all, of her literary output.

    Lescailje was a working woman with a professional career, making her authorship unlike that of many Dutchwomen, who wrote as pastime and whose writing was supposed to stop once they got married. The account books help us uncover something of the types of labor women undertook for the theater. And while many follow the division of labor seen in English playhouses, some women, like Santvoort and Lescailje, did not. Albach, Ben. Langs kermissen en hoven. Onstaan en kroniek van een Nederlands toneelgezelschap in de 17e eeuw.

    Zutphen: Walburg, Eeghen, I. De Amsterdamse boekhandel, Amsterdam: Scheltema en Holkema, HathiTrust Digital Library.

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    Elk, Martine van. For more on the first actresses at the Schouwburg. Leeuwen, Rozemarijn van. Grabowsky, Ellen M. Schijn of werkelijkheid? Heuvel, Danielle van den. Women and Entrepreneurship. Female Traders in the Northern Netherlands c. Amsterdam: Askant, Korda, Natasha.

    Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Weduwen in Leiden in de Gouden Eeuw. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, Schmidt, Ariadne, ed. Schmidt, Ariadne, and Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk.

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    Nederveen Meerkerk, Elise van. De draad in eigen handen. Vrouwen en loonarbeid in de Nederlandse textielnijverheid, Rasch, Rudolf. Geschiedenis van de muziek in de Republiek der Zeven Nederlanden Published on-line. Sterck, J. Wagenaar, Jan. Amsterdam in zyne opkomst, aanwas, geschiedenissen, voorregten, koophandel, gebouwen, kerkenstaat, schoolen, schutterye, gilden en regeeringe. Amsterdam: Tirion, The accountbooks have Santvoort as a widow at least as early as 8 October Hy heeft het oog over de Timmerluiden en andere arbeiders aan den Schouwburg, en houdt boek van derzelver verdiende loonen.

    Voor deezen dienst is hem, boven vrye wooning in den Schouwburg, ook vuur, licht en andere voordeelen toegelegd.

    Shakespearean Maternities Crises Of Conception In Early Modern England

    Adriana Eeckhout, huisvrouw van Nicolaas Rigo, en deze, gewoon akteur op den schouwburg, verklaren, dat zij in het voorhuis van den schouwburg samen present waren, en gezien hebben, dat de dochter van den kastelein, Anna du Court, zich, komende van het tooneel, zeer onbehoorlijk heeft gedragen tegen Adriana Eeckhout.

    Zij werd door een barbier verbonden. Susanna van Leen, die de moeder van Adriana was, kreeg ook verscheidene slagen. In the Low Countries, like elsewhere in Europe, some women enjoyed practicing calligraphy, as pastime but also to produce gifts for others. Gift-giving in general, as scholarship has been uncovering, involved much more than simply personal expressions of affection. Calligraphy can be situated in a socio-political context too, displaying female elegance but also conveying messages and affording the opportunity for a special kind of self-expression, as the presence of calligraphic flourishes in signatures, such as the one shown here of Anna Roemers Visscher, shows.

    Calligraphy must also be seen in the context of broader ideas on female handwriting of the period. Considering these perceived and real hurdles, female calligraphy flies in the face of such stereotypes, showing the calligrapher to be physically and mentally capable not simply of handwriting itself, but of writing in different hands with extraordinary ease and talent, bruising a letter as well as her male counterparts.